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Basics of Music- Part III (Raag and Thhaat)
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In part I, we introduced swars and mentioned that combination of swars constitutes melody. In part II, we introduced the concept of Rhythm (taal) and mentioned that it is the combination of melody and rhythm that makes music what it is today.

Each of the two parts were quite heavy duty stuff for people not exposed to such stuff earlier. I got some comments on part I, but hardly any for the second part, which may mean that these concepts may have been going above the heads of readers. Nevertheless, these concepts are vital and they needed to be introduced. Here is the third part of the discussion on basics of music.

Here, we will dig deeper into swars. In part I, we mentioned that there were seven basic swars in all and they belonged to one saptak (normally called madhya saptak). The saptak above madhya Saptak is called taar saptak, while the saptak below madhya saptak is called mandra saptak, each containing the same swars. We can have taar taar saptak as well as mandra mandra saptak too, but they are mostly theoretical in nature. In practice, one deals with swars belonging to madhya saptak and its adjacent saptaks, viz taar saptak and mandra saptak at the most.

Notes are combined to form scales of melody. In Hindustani classical music these melodic scales are called Raag. So, we can define a raag as a melodic scale consisting of seven swars. The different combination of these swars in their various permutaions and combination give rise to diffferent raags.

At least five swars are required to be used in a melodic scale in its aaroh as well as avroh before it can qualify to be called as a raag.

Different characteristics of raag

Characteristic of raag Explanation Remarks
Swars Raag must have pre defined swars in it
Thaat Family of Raags Raags with same aaroh swars belong to a thhaat
Jaati Classification based on number of swars used in the raag Raag may have five (audhav jaati ), six (shadav jaati ) or seven (sampoorn jaati) swars in it
Swars in Aaroh /Avroh Based on number of swars in aaroh and avroh Sampoorn-sampoorn (if 7 swars in aaroh as well as avroh), audhav-sampurna (if 5 swars in aaroh and seven swars in avroh), etc
Based on significant swars Most sigificant note is called Vaadi swar, second significant note is samvaadi swar
Based on characteristics For instance, based on its characteristic pakad etc.
Based on time of the day Raags are classified based on time of the day

All human beings in the world are divided into various zodiac categories based on their birth dates. Likewise all raags are divided into their own Zodiacs, called Thhaat based on the commonality of swars used in them. A thaat must have seven notes out of the twelve notes [Seven Shuddha, Four komal (Re, Ga, Dha, Ni), one teevra (Ma)], placed in an ascending order. Both the forms of the notes can be used. There are ten thaat in all. A thhaat is named after one of the member raags of that thaat. (courtesy: http://indian-classical-music-hindustani.blogspot.in/2011/07/thaats.html. Thanks to Reshma Hingorani for her brilliant blog)

(Note-m means shudhh madhyam, M means teevra madhyam, small letters for other swars means komal swars)

Name of thhaat Swars in raags of that thhaat Description Member raags
Bilaawal S R G m P D N S’ All seven shudhh swars used Alahiya-Bilawal / Alahiya Bilaval, Asa Bhavani, Bhinn Shadaj / Kaushik Dhawani, Bihag / Bihaag, Bihagda, Bilaval, Chakardhar, Chandrika, Chitmohini, Deepak (Bilaval), Deshkar, Devgiri Bilaval, Durga (Bilaval), Gunkali, Hansdhavani, Hem Kalian, Jairaj, Jaldhar Kaidar, Janranjani, Kakubh, Kamal Ranjani, Lachhasakh, Lajvanti, Mevada, Nat Bihag, Nat Bilaval, Pahadi, Patbihag, Ras-chandar, Ras-ranjani, Sarparda, Shankara, Shukal Bilaval, Yamani Bilaval
Khamaj S R G m P D n S’ Replace N of Bilawal thaat with n Champak, Champakali, Des, Durga (Khamaj), Gara, Gaud Malhar, Gawati, Gorakh Kalyan, Hans Shiri, JaiJaiVanti, Jhinjhoti, Jog, Kalavati, Kamai, Kamboji, Kantal Varali, Karunk Varali, Khamaj / Khamaaj, Khambavati, Khokar, Lankeshiri, Madhuri, Malgunji, Rageshri, Saraswati, Shyam Kedar, Sorath, Tilak Kamod, Tilang
Kaafi S R g m P D n S’ Add g to Khamaj Thaat Abhogi, Abhogi Kanada, Ahiri, Badhans Sarang, Bageshiri / Bageshri, Bahar, Barva, Bhim, BhimPalasi, Brindavani Sarang, ChandraKauns, ChandarNandan, Daulti, Deshkhya, Dhanashri, Dhani, Gara, Gaud Malhar, Gope, Kamboji, Hans Manjari, Hanskankani, Husseini Kanada, Jaikans, Jayant, Jog, Kafi / Kaafi, Kaunsi Kanada, Kohal,
Kohla, Madhukauns, Madhuranjani, Madmaad Sarang, Manavi, Megh Malhar, Megh, Mian Ki Malhar, Nayaki Kanada, Patdeep,
Piloo, Ramdasi Malhar, Shahana, Shahana Kahnda, ShiriRanjani, Shivranjani, Shudh Sarang, Surdasi Malhar, Vijaya
Asawari S R g m P d n S’ Add d to Kafi thaat Anand Bhairavi, Asavari, Darbari Kahnda/ Darbari, Desi, Dev Gandhar, Gandhari, Gopi Basant, Jangla Jheelaf (Asavari), Jaunpuri, Kaunsi Kanada (combination of malkauns and darbari), Khat, Komal Desi
Bhairavi S r g m P d n S’ All komal swaras, r g d n Bhairavi, Bhupali Todi, Bilaskhani Todi, Kaunsi Kanada (combination of malkauns and darbari), Komal Rishabh Asavari, Malkauns
Bhairav S r G m P d N S’ Komal r and d(bhairavi thaat minus komal g & n) Ahir-Bhairav, Bhairav, Gauri, Gunkali, Jogiya, Kalingada, Meghranjani, Nat Bhairav, Ramkali, Vibhas (When rendered with Komal D, falls under Bhairav Thaat)
Kalyan S R G M P D N S’ Teevra Madhyam Bhoopali / Bhopali, Chandarkant, Chandini Kedar, Chhayanat, Durga Kalian, Gaud Sarang, Hameer, Hindol, Jait Kalian, Kamod, Kedar, Lakshami Kalyan, Nand, Shiri Kalyan, Shudh Kalyan, Shyam Kalyan, Vejayanti, Viranchumukhi, Yaman / Yaman, Yaman Kalyan
Marwa S r G M P D N S’ Add r to Kalyan thaat. Bhankar, Bhatiyaar, Bibhas / Vibhas, Lalit When rendered with Shuddha D, falls under Marwa Thaat, Marwa, Puriya Kalyan, Puriya, Sohini
Poorvi S r G M P d N S’ Add d to Marwa thaat.
In lalit, r and d are Komal; M both Teevra and Shuddha. P not used. All other notes are Shuddha. When rendered with Shuddha D, Lalit also falls under Marwa Thaat
Basant, Gauri, Lalit, Paraj, Poorvi, Puriya Dhanashri Shree
Todi S r g M P d N S’ Add g to Purvi thaat – King of all thaats Gujari Todi, Lilavati, Madhuvanti, Miyan Ki Todi, Multani Todi

I realise that this part contains quite heavy duty stuff. But these are useful reference material that I have tried to bring together at one place for ready refrerence. After this heavy dose, the subsequent doses would be milder in comparison.

Having discussed a great deal about “Raag” in this writeup, let us listen to a Hindi movie song based on Raag Bageshwari. If one looks at the table of “Thhaat” above, one can make out that this raag belongs to Kaafi thhaat. So it uses the swars S R g m P D n S’

Details of this raag are

Scale
Aaroha : n s,g m,D n S
Avaroh : S n D ,m P D, g R S

Vadi : Madhyam (Ma)
Samavadi: Shadaj (Sa)

Jaati :Audhav Sampoorna

Varjit Swara – R P in Aaroh

Time for this raag-Madhya Raatri (Middle of night)

This song based on Raag Bageshwari is from “Raadha Aur Seeta”(1979). This song is in two parts. Part I is sung by Hemlata. Part II is sung by Hemlata and Suresh Wadkar. Ravindra Jain is the lyricist as well as the music director.

The song is picturised on Abha Dhuliya and Arun Govil.

Part I

Part II

Song-Man ki baat jab honthon pe aane ko ho (Raadha Aur Seeta)(1979) Singers-Hemlata, Suresh Wadkar,Lyrics-Ravindra Jain, MD-Ravindra Jain

Lyrics

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Part I (Female solo)
—————————

hmm hmm hmm
ho o ho

man ki baat jab honthon pe aane ko ho
aur jee koi geet gaane ko ho
kya ho
man aise mein jo keh de
abhi nahin
abhi nahin
phir kabhi ee
Man ki baat jab honthon pe aane ko ho

aisa sanyam bhi kya
jo sapnon ke bhi paaon rok de
aaye koi pathhik
?? nainon ke ??
tok de
laalsa jo kuchh
laalsa jo kuchh
khone paane ko ho
tinke chun chun ke
ghar banaane ko ho
kya ho
man aise mein jo keh de
abhi nahin
abhi nahin
phir kabhi ee
man ki baat jab honthon pe aane ko ho

bandhanon se pare
an-dekhe bandhan prem preet ke
jin mein bandh ke hriday
kabhi prashan kare ??
haar jeet ke
jab koi khushi
jab koi khushi
paas aane ko ho
koi apna sab kuchh lutaane ko ho
kya ho
man aise mein jo keh de
abhi nahin
abhi nahin
phir kabhi ee
Man ki baat jab honthon pe aane ko ho

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Part II (Duet)
——————————————–

an-kahi
an-suni ee
baaton ko madhu antar mein dhaal ke
sukh ka anubhav karo o
yoon hi sukh sapno ke deep daal ke
kuchh bataane ko
kuchh bataane ko
kuchh chhupaane ko ho
bela kehne ki
phir na aane ko ho
kya ho
man aise mein jo keh de
abhi nahin
abhi nahin
phir kabhi ee
man ki baat jab honthon pe aane ko ho

kalpana kya kare
yadi kehne waala
maun saadh le

srishti dekhe kise
do nainon ko jab laaj baandh le
dhairya ka baandh
dhairya ka baandh
toot jaane ko ho

aur phir bhi na man bataane ko ho
kab tak
yoon hi kehti rahogi
abhi nahin
abhi nahin
phir kabhi ee

man ki baat jab honthon pe aane ko ho


This article is written by Avinash Scrapwala, a fellow enthusiast of Hindi movie music and a contributor to this blog. This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

#The Decade of Seventies – 1971 – 1980 #
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# Bhoole-Bisre Geet # 11 # Duet-1 Hemlata, Suresh Wadkar
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For this post I was specially looking for a ‘duet’ and I think this ‘lighthearted’ and ‘typical Ravindra Jain musical’ fits in this series of ‘seventies’ very much.  This one is from the 1978 Film ‘Madhu Maalti’ sung by Suresh Wadkar and Hemlata. Listening to this song reminds us of the popular  “Vrishti Pade Tapor Tupur” from the film ‘Paheli’ (1977), by same team.
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This article is written by Sadanand Kamath, a fellow enthusiast of Hindi movie music and a contributor to this blog. This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

IN CUSTODY (1994) also known as MUHAFIZ was a film belonging to the parallel cinema based on Booker award nominated novel by the same name written by Anita Desai. The film was produced under the banner of Merchant Ivory Productions and was directed by Ismail Merchant. The star cast included Shashi Kapoor, Shabana Azmi, Om Puri, Sushma Seth, Neena Gupta, Tinnu Anand, Ajay Sahani, Prayag Raj, Virendra Saxena etc. The film picked up published nazms and ghazals of Faiz Ahmed Faiz for songs which were jointly composed by Ustad Zakir Hussain and Ustad Sultan Khan. I had set out in detail the story of the film while discussing ae jazba-e-dil gar main chaahoon. For the sake of the background, I will give here only a gist of the story of the film.
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This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

It is just past midnight. It continues to be chillingly cold here in Delhi. The standoff is ongoing in the struggle with the beckoning blankets, as the mind is trying its best to continue staying at the keyboard and thwart all the enticements of a cozy quilt. So far so good.
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This article is written by nahm, a fellow enthusiast of Hindi movie music and a contributor to this blog.This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

In continuation to my post for ‘apne haathon ko pehchaan’ :
There is this bhajan/song which is more a philosophical song from 1989 movie ‘ Bade ghar ki Beti ‘.

Actually it is based on a Meera bhajan, but improvised by the lyricist Santosh Anand and composers Laxmikant-Pyarelal. Once heard never forgotten kind of song, with its simple words and simple philosophy of contentment and containment.
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This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

Today (23 october 2014) is the festival of deepaawali. This festival is supposed to bring joy and happiness in the lives of everyone. I can certainly vouch for that. My main computer that has been hijacked by my wife for the last few days was surprisingly available to me this morning. I wake up earlier than others on the pretext of letting the dog out and teaching the daughter. The dogs were wide awake as usual but my daughter (and wife) are not (as usual). That gave me the opportunity of sitting on my main computer and try and give finishing touch to the posts for the day.
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This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

“Vijay”(1988) was produced and directed by Yash Chopra. The movie had Anupam Kher, Rajesh Khanna, Hema Malini, Rishi Kapoor, Sonam(Introducing), Anil Kapoor, Meenakshi Sheshadri, Gulshan Grover, Parikshit Sahni, Raj Babbar, Moushumi Chatterjee, Parijatha, Arjun Sablok, Saeed Jaffrey, Manmohan Krishna, Vikas Anand, Neil Nitin Mukesh as a child artiste, Shakti Kapoor, Anju Mahendru, Anant Mahadevan,Anjana Mumtaz etc in it.
Read more on this topic…


This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

Today (3 october 2014) is the birthday of J P Datta. J P Datta, a chip of the old block was the son of O P Datta and he made his mark in his debut movie itself, which was “Ghulaami” (1985).
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This article is written by Sadanand Kamath, a fellow enthusiast of Hindi movie music and a contributor to this blog. This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

Of late, I have been watching some offbeat Hindi movies (also called parallel cinemas or middle cinemas) on DVDs which I had bought at the time of my retirement to watch them later at my leisure. These type of films though artistically well conceived with good narrative style, the realism depicted in some of such films are too disturbing for me. Going by my experience, such well made films may not have repeat audience either in theatres or for watching on DVDs. After watching ‘ Kaagaz Ke Phool’ (1959) sometime in mid 6Os during Guru Dutt’s film festival, I have yet to amass courage to watch it once more though I have the DVD of the film. As against this, I must have watched umpteen times, movies like ‘Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi’ (1958), ‘Padosan’ (1968), and ‘Chupke Chupke’ (1975). Among the films of the recent period, I have seen ‘3 Idiots’ (2OO9) at least 3 times.
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This article is written by Peevesie’s mom, a fellow enthusiast of Hindi movie music and a contributor to this blog. This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

Yesterday evening Vividh Bharati was playing a whole lot of songs penned by Gulzar in the last two decades. And I was like “Oh My God! What a selection to post on the upcoming occasion of Gulzar Saab’s birthday”. But then I had this problem of zeroing into the right song for the blog as each and every song was a WOW! Just when I had thought of an appropriate number the next one would follow and I felt “nahin re, this should be the one!”. In the process I had selected all the songs played in that half an hour.
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This blog discusses Bollywood songs of yesteryears. Every song has a brief description, followed by a video link, and complete lyrics of the song.

This is a labour of love, where "new" songs are added every day, and that has been the case for more than six years. This blog has over 11100 song posts by now.

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