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Posts Tagged ‘Shankar Jaikishan


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Basics of Music- Part II (Taal)
————————–
In part I, we introduced the concepts of “octave” and “notes” and mentioned that they are known as “saptak” and “swar” respectively in Hindustani classical music. We used these concepts to discuss “Aaroh” and “Avroh”. Ab aage…

People will recall that Sur-Taal is a term that is commonly used while discussing music. We know what is “Sur” or “swar”. Let us now see what is “Taal”.

In a musical performance, there are people (singers as well as musicians) who create swars. These swars lead to what is called melody.

The musical team also has someone who is not at all producing swars and therefore makes no contribution in creation of melody.

If a musician is not producing melody then why is he there in the music team ? Throw him out of the team, some people may suggest.

That person in the musical team does not create melody, but he creates something which is just as important for music. He creates Rhythm (Taal) for the music.

Musical rhythm (taal) is a cyclical pattern of musical sounds (called bol) that get created at certain times (called beats). A taal may have say 16 beats (viz in case of a popular taal called teentaal). In each of these beats, certain “bol” get played. After a cycle of 16 beats during which 16 predefined bols get played, the same cycle get played again and again for the whole duration of the music composition.

This “taal” gets created on Duggi-Tabla in Hindustani classical music, or on mridangam in Karnatak classical music, on dholak in North Indian folk music, on dafli in street musical performances etc.

To summarise, while singers and many musical instruments create melody by playing notes (swars), there are certain musical instruments (mostly percussion instruments) that create cyclical musical rhythm (taal). A taal has a predefined number of beats and certain sounds (called bols) gets played during those beat events.

It is the combination of melody line and cyclical rhythm patterns that constitute music. While swars are being created in the melody line, bols are getting played in a sequence in the taal. Melody line and rhythm patterns seek to keep pace with each other in a musical performance.

Long back, taal was created manually (with hands) in the form of clap (taali) and they may have led to the nomenclature of the term Taal for rhythm. Now, duggi tabla is the standard instrument for this purpose in Hindustani classical music. Duggi (also called baayaan, as it is kept on the left hand side of the tabla player) and tabla (daayaan, as it is kept on the right hand side of the tabla player) together create certain “bols” such as

Name of “bol” How created Remarks
Ga by striking mid part (called maidaan) of duggi Resonant sound
Ka By striking rim (Chhat) of duggi Flat slapping sound no resonance
Ti By striking centre (syaahi) of tabla Flat slapping sound no resonance
Tin By striking mid portion of tabla
Ta/Na By striking rim of the tabla
Dhin Ga + Tin By striking mid part of duggi and mid part of tabla simultaneously
Dha Ga + Na By striking mid part of duggi and rim of tabla simultaneously

Let us take the example of teentaal. It is a 16 beat taal, where the 16 beats are subdivided into sections of 4 beats each. The bols are
dhaa dhin dhin dhaa / dhaa dhin dhin dhaa / dhaa tin tin taa/ taa dhin dhin dhaa

Here is a demonstration of teen taal (couresy the site raag-hindustani.com)

I mentioned earlier that a musical composition has surs creating melody and bol creating rhythm and their combination creates a musical composition. Here is an example how melody line and taal keep pace to create a composition (couresy the site raag-hindustani.com):

Lyrics

piya ki najariya jaadu bhari
piya ki najariya jaadu bhari
moh liyo man prem bhari
moh liyo man prem bhari
piya ki najariya
kawan jatan ab kari e aali
kawan jatan ab kari e aali
naahin pare mohe chain ek ghari
naahin pare mohe chain ek ghari
piya ki najariya jaadu bhari
piya ki najariya jaadu bhari
moh liyo man prem bhari
piya ki najariya

The above concept of “taal” is a very basic concept and one that is more dificult to understand than the concept of swar. The fact that sur creates melody and taal creates rhythm will help us understand what people mean when they describe some one as a melody king or a rhythm king.

Here is a song from “Laal Patthar” (1972). This song is a semi classical song which is sung by Manna Dey and Asha Bhonsle. Neeraj is the lyricist. Music is composed by Shankar Jaikishan.

The vocalists in this song create melody by singing swars in accordance to the grammer of Raag Kalyan, whereas rhythm of this song is kaharwa. Kaharwa is an 8 beat taal, where the eight beats are broken into two parts of four beats each. The bol of this taal are
dha ga na ti | na ka dhin na |

The song, while being sung in the same raag could have been accompanied by a different taal and then the song would have sounded differently.

Note: If you have followed the above discussion carefully and you have understood the concept of taal, then you would be able to catch an error in the lyrics of this song. The lyrics mentions
Sur hai raaja
lay hai raani

The lyrics should have been

Sur hai raaja
taal hai raani

“lay” is another concept that has not been explained so far and we will explain this term in a future article. For the time being try and understand the concept of “taal” as mentioned above and try to visualise how “Sur” and “taal” combine to create music.

As mentioned in the first part of this series, we are trying to go as gently as possible in the series, because the concepts being involved are very important and our understanding of future concepts will depend on our understanding of the terms that have been introduced so far.

Keep offering your suggestions, observations, words of encouragements etc to this series. We want to make this series a collaboration of contributors. I have received one article from a knowledgeable contributor on this subject which I will post after I have introduced some more basic concepts, so that the concepts mentioned in that article can be understood in a knowledgeable manner by readers.

The lyrics of this song were sent to me by Khyati Bhatt long long ago. I do not know how I failed to discuss this song at the time when this lyrics were sent to me long ago. Perhaps it was destined that this semi classical song be discussed while discussing the principle of music in the blog.


Song-Re man sur mein gaa (Laal Patthar)(1972) Singers-Manna Dey, Asha Bhonsle, Lyrics-Neeraj, MD- Shankar Jaikishan
Both

Lyrics (Provided by Khyati Bhatt)

re ae ae ae
aa aa aa aa
aa aa aa

aa aa aa aa
aa aa aa aa
aa aa aa aa aa
aa aa aa aa aa
aa aa aa
aa aa aa aa
aa aa aa aa
aa aa aa aa
aa aa aa aa
aa aa aa aa

re man sur mein ga aa aa
re man sur mein ga aa aa
re man sur mein ga
ga ga
re man sur mein ga aa aa

koi taar besur na boley
na boley
koi taar besur na boley
na boley

re man sur mein ga ga
ga
re man sur mein ga aa aa aa

jeevan hai sukh dukh ka sangam
jeevan hai sukh dukh ka sangam
madhyam ke sang jaise pancham
madhyam ke sang jaise pancham
donon ko ek bana
bana
bana
bana aa aa
re man sur mein ga ga ga
re man sur mein ga aa aa aa

dil jo dhadke
taal baje re ae
dil jo dhadke
taal baje re ae

taal taal mein samay chale re
taal taal mein samay chale re
samay ke sang ho ja aa aa
aa aa
aa aa aa
aa aa aa
aa aa aa
aa aa aa
aa aa aa
aa aa aa aa aa
re man sur mein ga ga ga
re man sur mein ga aa aa aa

jag hai geeton ki rajdhani
jag hai geeton ki rajdhaani
sur hai raaja
lay hai raani
aa aa aa
sur hai raaja
lay hai raani
saaz roop ban ja
ban ja
ban ja
ban ja ban ja aa aa
re man sur mein ga ga ga
re man sur mein

ga aa aa aa
re man sur mein
re man sur mein
re man sur mein
ga aa aa aa aa


This article is written by Sudhir, a fellow enthusiast of Hindi movie music and a contributor to this blog. This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

The film ‘Jwala’ was started sometimes in the second half of 1950s.  It was finally released in 1970, a year after the passing away of Madhubala.  As with some of her last films, this film also has deficient and compromised editing, and possible use of a double in some scenes, just to try and complete the storyline.  But forever, this will be known as her last released film.
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This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

“Albela”(1971) was directed by A Shamsheer for ShriJi Films, Bombay. The movie had Mehmood, Namrata, Anwar Ali, I S Johar, Rajendranath, Ramesh Deo, Dhumal, Brahamchari, Mukri, Asit Sen, Mohan Choti, S Bannerji, Johny Whisky, Dilip Dutt, Mirza Musharraf, Aruna Irani, Achla Sachdev, Leela Mishra, Lalita Kumari, Baby Guddi, Moolchand, Daulatram, Jerry, Ram, Bharat etc in it.
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This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

“Aankhon Aankhon Mein”(1972) was produced by Shankar Singh, J Om Prakash and Vijay Kumar and directed by Raghunath Jhalani. The movie had Rakesh Roshan, Rakhee, Pran, Raj Mehra, Tarun Bose, Sachdev, Tun Tun, Pran, Dara Singh Randhawa, Achla Sachdev, Pankaj, Indu Shivraj, Krishan Dhawan, V Gopal, Coca Cola, Madhu Apte, Sanjana, Meena T, Lata Arora, Jay Shree T, Madhumati, Moolchand etc in it.
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This article is written by Sudhir, a fellow enthusiast of Hindi movie music and a contributor to this blog. This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

Seven years, nineteen films, a celebration wedding that was the talk of the tinsel town, and then handing over the torch to the next generation.  That about sums up the career of the once beauty star – Babita.  Greetings to her on the 67 birthday today (20th April).

The short lived career, however, was a scintillating one.  She appeared opposite to practically all the top heroes in the industry at that time, and did a number of musical romantic films, as could have be the draw for the young and beautiful lady.  It is known that GP Sippy first offered the role of Sheetal, the young widow with child, for his upcoming film ‘Andaz’ (1971) to Babita. After some in-family discussions, she turned down the role, possibly considering that it might work to be a negative for her career.  Another youngster, Hema Malini, took on the role.  Hema Malini had made her debut in 1969, three years after Babita’s debut (‘Dus Lakh’, 1966).  Both are of the same age though, having the same year of birth.  The trajectories of their subsequent careers and lives, tell their own stories.
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This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

In my school and college days, we were taught that our essays needed to be precise and to the point and that beating about the bush instead of coming to the point was not recommended.

Much to my surprise, I discovered that Hindi movie songs, especially romantic songs typically had lyrics that would beat about the bush and would rarely come to the point. Instead of stating “I love you” and be done with it, Hindi movie songs would refer to “Baadal”, “Aasmaan”, “Chaatak”, “Mor”, “jhoola”,”Chilman”, “dupatta” etc etc. As a conscientious student, I disapproved of such collosal waste of stationery. :)
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This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

We have discussed more than 11000 songs by now. I had not thought even in my wildest of dreams that we will one day arrive at such a figure. My view was that we will have about 2500 songs in the blog and then we will not songs left to be discussed. :)
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This article is written by Sudhir, a fellow enthusiast of Hindi movie music and a contributor to this blog. This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

In the second half of 1960s and the first half of 1970s, Shashi Kapoor was the busiest actor in the industry.  After his struggle years of early 1960s, and riding on the success of films like ‘Jab Jab Phool Khile’ (1965), he started getting offers in such huge numbers, and because he did not turn down any one, there was a time when he was booked for almost 5 to 7 years at a single stretch.
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This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

“Jaane Anjaane”(1971) was produced and directed by Shakti Samanta. The movie had Shammi Kapoor, Leena Chandavarkar, Helen, Vinod Khanna, Sulochana Latkar, Jayant, Sandhya Roy, Lalita Pawar, K.N.Singh, Dhumal, Sajjan, Gulshan Bawra, Birbal, Murad, Kanu Roy, Sadhna Patel, Rukmini Bakshi, Kundan, Harbans Darshan, M.Arora, A.K.Tiwari, Hindustani, Master Sachin, Master Shahid, Satyen Kappu, Sujata, Satyendra Kumar etc in it.
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This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

“Aamrapaali”(1966) was produced by F C Mehra and directed by Lekh Tandon for Eagle Films. The movie had Sunil Dutt,Vyjayanthimala, K.N.Singh,Premnath,Keshav Rana,Mridula Rani, Madhvi, Bela Bose, Gajanan Jagirdar, Bipin Gupta, Zul Vellani, Randhir, Sushila(dancer), Salochana(senior)aka Ruby Mayers, Panchotia, Narindernath, Baburao Pendharkar, H.Prakash, Narbada Shankar, Kamal Mohan, Nazir Kashmiri, Kapoor, Dhruv Kumar, Gopal Dutt, Brij Bhushan, Ranbir Raj, Rakesh, Nimbalkar, Krishan Mehta, Ratan Kumar, Awtar Singh etc in it.
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This blog discusses Bollywood songs of yesteryears. Every song has a brief description, followed by a video link, and complete lyrics of the song.

This is a labour of love, where "new" songs are added every day, and that has been the case for more than six years. This blog has over 11100 song posts by now.

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