Atul’s Song A Day- A choice collection of Hindi Film & Non-Film Songs

Beete ho sukh ke din aayee dukh ki ratiyaa

Posted on: May 28, 2020


This article is written by Arunkumar Deshmukh, a fellow enthusiast of Hindi movie music and a contributor to this blog. This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in other sites without the knowledge and consent of the web administrator of atulsongaday.me, then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

Blog Day: 4332 Post No.: 15627

Today’s song is from a film ‘Dharti ke Lal’-46, made by Indian People Theatre Association – formed on 25th May 1943. The film was directed by K.A.Abbas. The music was by Ravishankar. For 10 songs, written by a team of 4 Lyricists, music was composed by Ravi Shankar. Ravi Shankar (7-4-1920 to 11-12-2012) gave music only to 5 Hindi films, composing 48 songs – Neecha Nagar-46, Dharati ke lal-46, Anuradha-60, Godan-63 and Meera-79. Few songs from films Anuradha and Godan were good and popular, otherwise, in my opinion, his music was absolutely average. It never impressed me.

The film’s cast was Shombhu Mitra, Usha Dutt, Balraj Sahni, Damayanti Sahni, Anwar Mirza, Tripti Bhaduri Mitra, David, K N Singh etc etc. This was the first and the only directly produced film by IPTA. Later on, it supported many films in Hindi, Bangla and other languages. IPTA was an association of like minded people of socialistic thinking, influenced by and tilting towards Communism.

After the Great Russian Revolution in 1917, the Communist Cult philosophy started attracting people in the world, but within next 75 years,i.e. by 1992, the Russian Communism came to a close with President Gorbachev’s Peristroika and Glassnost. In India, in the early years after the Independence, Communists had some states under their control and with Nehru’s blessings, they prospered too. However, as on today, Communism in not only the world, but even in India is thriving only in remote pockets and Naxalite activities. IPTA has been the Cultural wing of CPI in India.

It had become an established way to project India’s poverty, illiteracy, poor people and the miseries of the ‘Have Nots’, through films and such ‘realistic’ films were decorated with medals. Films made on the famous Bengal Famine of 1943 and Appu Triology did this job faithfully and received accolades.

In Indian film industry there were stalwarts, who swore by Nehru’s Socialism. Big guns like Mehboob Khan, A R Kardar and B R Chopra were few examples. Socialism dripped from the films they made- Roti, Mother India, Son of India, Naya Daur etc. can be quoted in this context.

Amongst the actors, Balraj Sahni was one actor who tilted to this philosophy. Most writers, directors actors etc from Bangla film industry were sympathetic towards this philosophy, if not actively participating openly into it. Out of the important and active members of Bombay from IPTA was K A Abbas. It was his idea to make a film on 1943 Bengal famine. Abbas not only made Dharti ke lal in 1946, but also made its sequel Munna in 1954. This is what Encyclopedia of indian Cinema says about film Dharti ke lal-46….Based on Bijon Bhattacharya’s plays Nabanna and Jabanbandi; Krishen Chander’s short story Annadata. Abbas’s directorial debut launched a major trend of ‘realist’ cinema. The film is set during WW2 and the 1943 Bengal famine (a traumatic event often used as source material by left cultural movements) and a growing ‘nation-building’ ideology. Made during the war, the novice cast and crew were accorded a special licence for a war-effort contribution.
The only film actually produced by the IPTA (although it later informally supported several other films), the film is based partly on Sombhu Mitra’s landmark production of Bhattacharya’s play Nabanna for the IPTA. It narrates the story of a family of sharecroppers in Bengal: the patriarch Samaddar, his elder son Niranjan and his wife Binodini, and the younger son Ramu with his wife Radhika. Despite a good harvest and rising grain prices during the war, Samaddar loses his property to a crooked graindealing zamindar. Ramu, his wife and their newborn baby go to Calcutta followed soon after by the rest of the family along with thousands of similarly dispossessed peasants. The film intercuts Ramu’s frantic search for work with his wife’s descent into prostitution. Before dying, the patriarch enjoins his family to return to their native soil where the farmers get together and, in a stridently celebratory socialist-realist ending, opt for Soviet-style collective farming. Ramu is excluded from their world.

The film’s highly stylised and symbol-laden realism proved extremely influential. It appears to have found a way of narrativising the 1943 famine which set the pattern for many films moving from depictions of deprivation in the country to suffering in the city, e.g. Nemai Ghosh’s Chinnamul (1950) and Bimal Roy’s Do Bigha Zameen (1953). It also initiated a new type of melodrama able to marry actuality to psychoanalytic and political anxieties and desires, as in Abbas’s scripts for Raj Kapoor.

Presented By: Indian Peoples Theatre Association (IPTA); Associate Producer: V.P. Sathe; Associate Director: Sambhu Mitra, Balraj Sahni, P.A. Gupte; Assistant Director: Srinivas Sastri, Narendra Trivedi; Story: Bijon Bhattacharya, Krishen Chander; Screenplay: K.A. Abbas; Dialogue: K.A. Abbas; Adaptation: Bijon Bhattacharya’s “Navana” and “Jiban Maran”, Krishen Chander’s “I cannot die”. Music Director: Ravi Shankar.
K A Abbas was an important name in Hindi film industry. He was close to many heavyweight actors, producers and other directors. He belonged to a highly cultured and educaqted family from Panipat (present Haryana). Khwaja Ahmad Abbas was born in Panipat, Haryana, on 7-6-1916. He was born in the home of celebrated Urdu poet, ‘Khwaja Altaf Husain Hali’, a student of Mirza Ghalib. His grandfather Khwaja Gulam Abbas was one of the chief rebels of the 1857 Rebellion movement, and the first martyr of Panipat to be blown from the mouth of a cannon. Abbas’s father Ghulam-Us-Sibtain graduated from Aligarh Muslim University, was a tutor of a prince and a prosperous businessman, who modernised the preparation of Unani medicines. Abbas’s mother, ‘Masroor Khatoon’, was the daughter of Sajjad Husain, an enlightened educationist.

Abbas took his early education in ‘Hali Muslim High School’, which was established by his great grand father Hali. He had his early education till 7th in Panipat. He was instructed to read the Arabic text of the Quran and his childhood dreams swung at the compulsive behest of his father. Abbas completed his matriculation at the age of fifteen. He did his B.A. with English literature in 1933 and LL.B. in 1935 from Aligarh Muslim University

Worked on National Call, a New Delhi paper (1933); started Aligarh Opinion when studying law (1934); obtained law degree in 1935; political correspondent and later film critic for nationalist Bombay Chronicle, Bombay (1935- 47) praising Dieterle, Capra and esp. Shantaram. Wrote Indian journalism’s longest- running weekly political column, Last Page (1941-86), in Chronicle and Blitz. Best-known fiction (Zafran Ke Phool situated in Kashmir, Inquilab on communal violence) places him in younger generation of Urdu and Hindi writers with Ali Sardar Jafri and Ismat Chughtai, whose work followed the PWA? and drew sustenance from Nehruite socialism’s pre- Independence, anti-Fascist and anti-communal commitments.

Founder member of IPTA’s all- India front (1943), to which he contributed two seminal plays: Yeh Amrit Hai and Zubeida. Entered film as publicist for Bombay Talkies (1936) to whom he sold his first screenplay, Naya Sansar (1941). First film, Dharti Ke Lal, made under IPTA’s banner and drew on Bijon Bhattacharya’s classic play Nabanna (1944), dealing with the Bengal famine of 1943.

Set up production company Naya Sansar (1951), providing India’s most consistent representation of socialist-realist film (cf. Thoppil Bhasi and Utpal Dutt). Best work is in the scripts for his own films and for those of Raj Kapoor (Awara 1951); Shri 420 (1955), 1955, both co-written with V.P. Sathe; Jagte Raho, 1956; Bobby, 1973) and Shantaram’s Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani (1946; adapted from his own book, And One Did Not Come Back), which combined aspects of Soviet cinema (Pudovkin) and of Hollywood (e.g. Capra and Upton Sinclair), influencing a new generation of Hindi cineastes (Kapoor, Chetan Anand) and sparking new realist performance idioms (BALRAJ SAHNI). His Munna, without songs or dances, and Shaher Aur Sapna, cheaply made on location in slums, were described as being influenced by neo-realism.

Pardesi is the first Indian-Soviet co-production, co- directed by Vassili M. Pronin. The landmark Supreme Court censorship judgement about his Char Shaher Ek Kahani (aka A Tale of Four Cities) curtailed ‘arbitrary’ governmental pre- censorship powers on the grounds that the Indian Constitution guarantees the right to free speech. His constitutional challenge of the Cinematograph Act led to the famous Supreme Court decision upholding the validity of precensorship of cinema. Interestingly in Interestingly in 1939, K A Abbas had written a letter to Gandhi urging him to reconsider his opinion on the idea of the evil of cinema. He writes
“Today I bring for your scrutiny – and approval -a new toy my generation has learned to play with, the CINEMA! – You include cinema among evils like gambling, sutta, horse racing etc… Now if these statements had come from any other person, it was not necessary to be worried about them… But your case is different. In view of the great position you hold in this country, and I may say in the world, even the slightest expression of your opinion carries much weight with millions of people. And one of the world’s most useful inventions would be allowed to be discarded or what is worse, left alone to be abused by unscrupulous people. You are a great soul, Bapu. In your heart there is no room for prejudice. Give this little toy of ours, the cinema, which is not so useless as it looks, a little of your attention and bless it with a smile of toleration”.

Published many books including I Am Not An Island and Mad Mad World of Indian Films (both 1977). Other important scripts: Neecha Nagar (1946); Mera Naam Joker (1970); Zindagi Zindagi (1972); Henna (1991). Abbas also brought a number of new talents into the film industry, such as Amitabh Bachchan in Saat Hindustani . K.A.Abbas died on 1-6-1987 at Bombay. ( adapted, with thanks, from The Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema).

One of the main female leads in the film was Tripti Mitra, who was not at all a known face in Hindi films that time. Her name first became known to Hindi audience when, as the main Heroine, Tripti Mitra gave a remarkable performance in film Gopinath-1948.
Tripti Mitra was a big name in Bangla films and stage movement. She acted in only 3 Hindi movies. Gopinath-48, Dharati ke Lal-46 and Munna-54. Munna was a sequel to Dharati Ke Lal- both films directed by K.A.Abbas.

Smt. TRIPTI MITRA, née Tripti Bhaduri (Born 25 October 1925 – Died 24 May 1989), popular Indian Actress of Bengali Theatre and Films. She was the wife of Sombhu Mitra, noted Theatre & Film Director, with whom she co-founded pioneering theatre group Bohurupee in 1948. She has acted in films like Jukti Takko Aar Gappo and Dharti Ke Lal.

She was awarded Padma Shri and the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, the highest Indian recognition given to practicing artists, given by Sangeet Natak Akademi, India’s National Academy for Music, Dance and Drama.

Tripti Mitra was born in Dinajpur (British India) on 25 October 1925. Her father was Ashutosh Bhaduri and mother was Shailabala Debi. In Dinajpur Minor School she studied up to class six, then she came to Kolkata and got admission in Pyaricharan School. After passing Higher Secondary Examination from that school, she got admission in Ashutosh College. But she could not complete her studies since she got a job. She married Sombhu Mitra in December, 1945. She has a daughter Shaoli Mitra, who is also an actress and director.

Tripti Mitra had been acting in theatre since her teens. She first acted in her cousin Bijon Bhattacharya’s play Agun (Fire) in 1943. After watching her stage performance in noted IPTA play, Nabanna (Harvest) based on Bengal famine of 1943, director Khwaja Ahmad Abbas took her to Bombay to act in Gana Natya Sangha’s film Dharti Ke Lal in 1943, partly based on the play. Her first Bengali film was Pathik in 1953, the film was directed by Debaki Kumar Basu. She also acted in Ritwik Ghatak’s last film, Jukti Takko Aar Gappo (1974).

In 1948, Shombhu and Tripti Mitra founded their own theatre group named Bohurupee. She acted in innumerable plays mostly along with her husband Sombhu Mitra,a colossus in the field of theatre, to become one of the most legendary beings of Bengali theatre, most famous for her role as Nandini, the protagonist of Rabindranath Tagore’s Rakta Karabi. She also acted in Jago Hua Savera, a 1959 Urdu movie produced in Dhaka, East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), based on a Manik Bandopadhya’s classic novel Padma Nadir Majhi.

Tripti Mitra died on 24 May 1989.

Out of the 10 songs of the film, today’s song is the 3rd song to be presented here. The song is slightly short of 3 minutes. In the film , even a much shorter version is used. Thanks to Sadanand Kamath ji for uploading this rare song which was not available so far on You Tube.


Song- Beete ho sukh ke din aayee dukh ki ratiya (Dharti Ke Laal)(1946) Singer- Lakshmi Shankar, Lyricist- Unknown, MD- Pt. Ravi Shankar

Lyrics

Beete ho sukh ke din
aayee dukh ki ratiyaa
ho raama
Beete ho o sukh ke din
aayeen dukh ki ratiyaa
ho raama
ho raama aa
tadpat hai mora jiyara
tadpat hai mora jiyara
piya bina beete ??
ho raama
piya bina beete ??
ho raama
piya gailo bideswa ho raama
piya gailo bideswa ho raama
piya gailo bideswa ho raama

kaa se kahoon oon ab main aen aen
dukhi man ki batiyaan aan aan
ho raama aa
taras rahin mori ankhiyaan aan
kahaan gailo balamwa ho
kahaan gailo balamwa ho
ho raama
ho raama
kaa se kahoon ab main
dukhi man ki batiyaan
ho ho
ho ho
raama
beete ho ho
sukh ke din
aayeen dukh ki ratiyaan aan
ho o raama

6 Responses to "Beete ho sukh ke din aayee dukh ki ratiyaa"

On my video clip, a comment has been posted with a question mark – Lakshmi Shankar by chance?

I checked her voice in a song from ‘Neecha Nagar’ (1946) and in my view the voice in the song under discussion, more or less, marches with that of Lakshmi’s Shankar’s voice in the song from ‘Neecha Nagar’. Both these films were released in 1946.

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By the way, Lakshmi Shankar is the sister-in-law of Pandit Ravi Shankar.

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Sadanand ji,
Thanks for name of Lakshmi Shankar.
Yes, she married Rajendra Shankar in 1941, while learning dancing in Uday Shankar’s Institute at Almoda.
-AD

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Thanks for this information.

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Arun Ji, thanks for informative post on Abbas, IPTA and all those like minded people in that circle.
I refer to your comment that except for ‘Anuradha’ & ‘Godaan’ his efforts at music direction in other films were average.( ‘Meera’ was good too) It may be true to some extant.
In this context I remember to have read a comment made by Ravi Shankar himself in some interview.
He said, composing film songs is a different ball game or expertise. (Sic).
He said one has to get a good mix of classical, semi classical, Folk, western….. tunes and has to embellish them with popular orchestration. He said one cant do it simply by being classical music exponent. He mentioned about SDB, SJ, Madan Mohan… as adept in this effort
( not exact words, but the essence’)

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Satish ji,
Thanks for your comment.
Yes, of course, Ravi Shankar was a great Sitar player, but not so good in Film music. I think, i have also read his this interview, wherein in later part he says that it was on the insistance of friends that he tried Film music composing.
-AD

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