Atul’s Song A Day- A choice collection of Hindi Film & Non-Film Songs

Ek do teen chaar bhaiyya bano hoshiyaar

Posted on: November 6, 2013


This article is written by Arunkumar Deshmukh, a fellow enthusiast of Hindi movie music and a regular contributor to this blog. This article is meant to be posted in atulsongaday.me. If this article appears in sites like lyricstrans.com and ibollywoodsongs.com etc then it is piracy of the copyright content of atulsongaday.me and is a punishable offence under the existing laws.

This is the 3rd song in the series “The Great Souls of India”. It is from the film ‘Sant Gyaneshwar'(1964) and is sung by Lata Mangeshkar under the baton of her favourite Music Directors Laxmikant Pyarelal.

Maharashtra has been known to be a well developed modern state, boasting of an Education centre (Pune)as well as a commercial hub centre(Mumbai). It is also a lucky state because it had lot many saints and social reformers from every strata of society.

While Ramdas and Gyaneshwar were from Bramhins, other saints belonging to the different castes were Tukaram(Bania), Namdev(Tailor), Savta mali(Gardener), Narhari(Goldsmith), Gora Kumbhar(Potter), Sant Sena(Barber), Rohidas(Cobbler), Chokha Mela(Maali), etc etc.

There were several women saints too like, Sant Soyrabai, Muktabai, Sant Sakhu, Sant Kanhopatra, Sant Janabai etc. (Lists are only indicative,not exhaustive).

These saints contributed immensely to the efforts of reforming the polluted social structures in Maharashtra and take the state ahead of others on development in Women’s education, Literacy, education, communal harmony etc.

While a saint like Ramdas swami(Guru of Shivaji Maharaj) taught common people how to live life wisely and yet cultivate Bhakti marg, some saints like Gyaneshwar brought in the teachings of important religious books like Bhagwat Geeta from Sanskrit to Marathi, all the other saints from different classes of society used their own day to day languages to praise the God and the common masses identified themselves with these works.

The period of 1300 to 1600 AD, a time frame of 300 years or thereabouts, was when most saints were active in India. This was the period when several outside rulers invaded India and established their rules. This was the time when the culture and religion of India had to be saved from annihilation. The saints of India played an important role in this and maintained Unity and Oneness of Indian culture from getting destroyed. But for them,there was a danger of the whole nation getting converted to Islam or Christianity. India will forever be grateful to the saints for this .

Out of the many saints and reformers of Maharashtra, few stand out for their additional contribution towards literary works. For example, Gyaneshwar wrote ‘Gyaneshwari'(translation og Geeta), Tukaram wrote Abhangs, Namdeo contributed to Punjabi language, Sikh culture and Guru Granth Sahib, and Ramdas wrote ‘Dasbodh’ to teach people how to balance between Bhakti and Bhog(family life).

Most saints had very short life spans (Sant Gyaneshwar died when he was just 21), as if they came here only to achieve something and disappear. Their works, however, remained as their marks and contribution to the society.

It is said that in this Gyaneshwar laid the base and Tukaram finished with the Top of the Bhakti movement.

Here is a short note on Gyaneshwar,adapted form wiki-

Sant Dnyaneshwar (1275-1296) was born in 13th century Maharashtra, before the Muslim invasions of the region started. During this period, arts and sciences prospered under the patronage of the newly ascended Yadava kings. However, this period also witnessed religious degeneration, superstitions, and rituals which involved animal sacrifices and worship of many deities. Jnandeva emerged as one the first original philosophers to write in Marathi language in this era. Some of his works were critical of the notions of asceticism and deity worship prevalent in the time.

According to Nath tradition Dnyaneshwar was the second of the four children of Vitthal Govind Kulkarni and Rukmini, a pious couple from Apegaon near Paithan on the banks of the river Godavari. Vitthal had studied Vedas and set out on pilgrimages at a young age. In Alandi, about 30 km from Pune, Sidhopant, a local Yajurveda Brahmin, was very much impressed with him and Vitthal married his daughter Rukmini.

After some time, getting permission from Rukmini, Vitthal went to Kashi(Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, Bharat (india), where he met Ramananda Swami and requested to be initiated into sannyas, lying about his marriage. But Ramananda Swami later went to Alandi and, convinced that his student Vitthal was the husband of Rukmini, he returned to Kashi and ordered Vitthal to return home to his family. The couple was excommunicated from the Brahmin caste as Vitthal had broken with sannyas, the last of the four ashrams. Four children were born to them; Nivrutti in 1273, Dnyandev (Dnyaneshwar) in 1275, Sopan in 1277 and daughter Mukta in 1279. According to some scholars their birth years are 1268, 1271, 1274, 1277 respectively. It is believed that later Vitthal and Rukmini ended their lives by jumping into the waters at Prayag where the river Ganges meets Yamunahoping that their children would be accepted into the society after their death.
The couple set out on a pilgrimage with their children to Tryambakeshwar, near Nashik, where their elder son Nivrutti (at the age of 10) was initiated into the Nath tradition by Gahininath. The paternal great grandfather of Dnyaneshwar had been initiated into the Nath cult by Goraksha Nath (Gorakh Nath). The orphanedchildren grew up on alms. They approached the Brahmin community of Paithan to accept them but the Brahmins refused. According to the disputed “Shuddhi Patra” the children were purified by the Brahmins on condition of observing celibacy. Their argument with the Brahmins earned the children fame and respect due to their righteousness, virtue, intelligence, knowledge and politeness.

This when Sant Dnyaneshwar asked them on why they can’t be taken back into the Hindu community and given the sacred thread. The Brahmins said they can’t as He was a son of a sanyasi. Sant Dnyaneshwar replied, that for that sin, His parents have already given up their body, to be absolved of their sins. Sant Dnyaneshwar further said that Bhagwaan Shree Krushna in the Bhagwad Gita Has also said that the atma is present in everyone in the universe. To which a the miracle took place. There was man passing with a buffalo, the Brahmins asked him is there Parmeshwar in this buffalo as well. Sant Dnyaneshwar replied in the affirmative and started reciting the Vedas, the Brahmins tried to stop Him, to which He replied, doesn’t every soul have the right to sing praises towards God. He resumed singing the Vedas, they stopped Him again and then a Buffalo started continuing the Vedas, from where Sant Dnyandev stopped!
Dnyaneshwar became the student of Nivruttinath along with his younger siblings Sopan and Mukta at the age of 8. He learned and mastered the philosophy and various techniques of Kundalini.

The child moved to Nevasa, a village in Ahmednagar district, where Dnyaneshwar began his literary work when Nivruttinath instructed him to write a commentary on Bhagavad Gita. TheDnyaneshwari or Bhavartha Deepika was written down by Sacchidananandbaba from discourses by Dnyaneshwar. By the time the commentary was complete Dnyaneshwar was only 15 years old.

Considered a masterpieces of Marathi literature, the Dnyaneshwari’s 18 chapters are composed in a metre called “ovi”. Dnyaneshwar liberated the “divine knowledge” locked in the Sanskrit language to bring that knowledge into Prakrit (Marathi) and made it available to the common man. He was confident that he would write in marathi in as good or better manner than Sanskrit.

Amrutanubhav, written some time after, is difficult and finds fewer readers[citation needed]. Containing 10 chapters and 806 ovi, the basis of this book is nondualism (advaita siddhanta). The seventh and biggest chapter (295 ovi) is the most important. Apart from Dnyaneshwari and Amrutanubhav works like Changdev Paasashti (a collection of 65 ovi addressed to an allegedly 1400 years old yogi named Changdev Maharaj), Haripath and around 1000 “abhanga” (authorship of many is disputed due to differences in writing style) are attributed to Dnyaneshwar..
After having composed Amrutanubhava, Dnyaneshwar made a pilgrimage to northern India with Namdev and other saints. After completing this pilgrimage he expressed his intention to enter into a state of Samadhi because he felt that the mission of his life was complete. It is widely propagated that at the age of 21 on 13th day of the second half of Kartik in Shaka 1218, Dnyaneshwar entered into a permanent state of Sanjeevan Samadhi at Alandi in Pune in Maharashtra, India.

An account of this incident is described by the contemporary Saint Namdev in a set of Abhangas named as Samadheeche Abhanga (translation: Abhangas of Samadhi).

SANT GYANESHWAR-1964 was a film by Ranglok, Bombay.Director was Manibhai Vyas and the Music Direction was by the pair of Laxmikant-Pyarelal while lyrics were by by Bharat Vyas. The cast was Shahu Modak, Sudhir kumar, Jeevan, Sulochana, Surekha, Asit Sen etc..

The film is set in a period when the country was in chaos. Misrule of Kings and hypocrisy of the priestly class was tormenting the masses. In Alandi, near Poona,lived Vithalpant and Rukminibai. They had 3 sons- Nivruttinath, Dnyaneshwar and Sopan Dev and a daughter Muktabai. Vithalpant had come back from Varanasi,where he was a sanyasi and as per his Guru’s command had re entered Grihasthashram. According to the local Bramhins this was a sin and against the tenets of Dharma. Once you leave Grihasthashram and become a sanyasi, you can not again start being a Grihastee. For this sin they tortured the family. They were ostracized and the Bramhins refused to do the thread ceremony of these children (Upnayan sanskaar). Unable to bear the humiliation anymore Vithalpant and Rukmini go to Prayag and throw themselves into Ganga to end their lives.

Gyaneshwar (Dnyaneshwar or Dnyan Dev), realised that the priestly class was able to tyrannize the illiterate masses because the common man was unable to understand what was written in sacred books in Sanskrit. He vowed to bring these books into Marathi language. he wrote ‘ Gyaneshwari or Bhavartha Deepika” (Bhagwad Geeta), when he was just 15 year old. This too was resented by the Bramhins as they feared a challenge to their exclusivity and superiority. Visoba,the leader of local Bramhins called the tantrik Yogi CHANGDEV, who was supposed to be 1400 year old and knew lot of Tantrik vidyas. To impress Gyaneshwar, Changdev came with 1000 followers and rode on a Tiger using a serpant as a whip. When he came all the 4 children- Nivrittinath, Gyaneshwar, Sopandev and Muktabai were sitting on a wall, in the morning sunlight. Gyaneshwar ordered the wall to walk to welcome Changdev. When Changdev saw the non-living wall also obeying Gyaneshwar , all his pride was destroyed and he bowed to him.

Gyaneshwar tried to prove to the Bramhins of Alandi that God resided in all living beings and to prove this he made a He-Buffalow recite vedas, in their presence.

Gyaneshwar,after taking permission from elder brother Nivruttinath,decided to take Samadhi and gave up his mortal body in 1296.

Here is a song from this film, sung by Lata ji. This song shows Muktabai asking her brothers to get educated.


Song-Ek do teen chaar bhaiyya bano hoshiyaar (Sant Gyaneshwar)(1964) Singer-Lata, Lyrics-Bharat Vyas, MD-Laxmikant Pyarelal

Lyrics

ek do teen chaar
ek do teen chaar
bhaiya bano hoshiyaar
ek do teen chaar
bhaiya bano hoshiyaar
sabka hai kehna anpadh na rehna
jao guru ji ke dwaar
ek do teen chaar
bhaiya bano hoshiyaar
sabka hai kehna anpadh na rehna
jao guru ji ke dwaar
ek do teen chaar

patti likhna copy bhi padhna
patti likhna
patti likhna copy bhi padhna
saare jug me cham cham chamakna
o mere bhaiya
o pyaare bhaiya
phir to pahnoge phoolon ke haar
ek do teen chaar
bhaiya bano hoshiyaar
sabka hai kahna anpadh na rahna
jaao guru ji ke dwaar
ek do teen chaar

shaitaani tum jyada na karna
shaitaani
shaitaani tum jyaada na karna
pandit ji ke gusse se darna
mere bhaiya
ho achche bhaiya
nahi to khaoge benton ki maar
ek do teen char
bhaiya bano hoshiyar
sabka hai kahna
anpadh na rahna
jao guru ji ke dwaar
ek do teen cahar

padh kar seedhe ghar ko hi aana
padh kar seedhe
padh kar seedhe ghar ko hi aana
meethe meethe laddu bhi khana
o mere bhaiya
ho mere mithe bhaiya
fir main loongi balaiya hazar
ek do teen chaar
bhaiya bano hoshiyar
sabka hai kehna
anpadh na rahna
jao guru ji ke dwaar
ek do teen chaar

3 Responses to "Ek do teen chaar bhaiyya bano hoshiyaar"

Arunji,
Thanks for the informative most and posting a song from one of my favorite movie. All songs are melodious. Other two songs- Har nayi kiran ke saath… by Manna Dey and Radhe Govind bhajo…. by Mukesh and Shyama Hemady are my childhood memories.
Thank you again and will wait for another post about another great soul of India.

Like

I used to teach the song to my children. They still remember.

Like

What a fantastic write up Arun ji! You have succinctly put forth the real work of Saints in India and not sounding shrill for a moment! The song is always ‘ Sone Pe uhaga’

Warm Regards,

Umesh

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